David Munn - Augusta GA
Andrew Mellor - Augusta GA
Medical College of Georgia Research Institute, Inc. - Augusta GA
A mechanism of macrophage-induced T cell suppression is the selective elimination of tryptophan and/or increase in one or more tryptophan metabolites within the local macrophage microenvironment Studies demonstrate that expression of IDO can serve as a marker of suppression of T cell activation, and may play a significant role in allogeneic pregnancy and therefore other types of transplantation, and that inhibitors of IDO can be used to activate T cells and therefore enhance T cell activation when the T cells are suppressed by pregnancy, malignancy or a virus such as HIV. Inhibiting tryptophan degradation (and thereby increasing tryptophan concentration while decreasing tryptophan metabolite concentration), or supplementing tryptophan concentration, can therefore be used in addition to, or in place of, inhibitors of IDO. Similarly, increasing tryptophan degradation (thereby, decreasing tryptophan concentration and increasing tryptophan metabolite concentration), for example, by increasing IDO concentration or IDO activity, can suppress T cells. Although described particularly with reference to IDO regulation, one can instead manipulate local tryptophan concentrations, and/or modulate the activity of the high affinity tryptophan transporter, and/or administer other tryptophan degrading enzymes.